Until his appearance, probably in the late 8th century bce, individual combat predominated in warfare. The cavalry had to be wealthier than the infantry because just the horse was expensive, never mind the arms and armor. (in ancient Greece) a heavily armed infantryman. The spear measured on average 2.5 metres (8 ft.) in length and was fitted with a bronze or iron blade and a four-sided end spike (sauroter). The hoplites were soldiers from Ancient Greece who were usually free citizens. Other city-states followed a si… Dictionary.com Unabridged All this on a soldier who himself probably weighed no more than 150 pounds. lit′ic adj. Written by Mark Cartwright, published on 09 February 2013 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. https://www.ancient.eu/hoplite/. Shields often carried particular designs - the most famous being the inverted V-shape of Spartan hoplites - and emblems - particularly popular was the gorgon from Greek mythology with its association with changing the onlooker into stone. Enslave definition, to make a slave of; hold (someone) in slavery or bondage: Spartacus was enslaved by the Romans, fought as a gladiator, and later led an insurrection in 73 B.C. He holds an MA in Political Philosophy and is the Publishing Director at AHE. XI. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. After th… oligarchy. Some texts on the so-called (and now largely discounted) "Hoplite Revolution" Homer: The Iliad, c. 750 B.C. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2020) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. Hoplite, heavily armed ancient Greek foot soldier whose function was to fight in close formation. Terms in this set (23) untouchables. See more. World History; Britannica Classics Check out these retro videos from Encyclopedia Britannica’s archives. The hoplite was the heavy armed citizen soldier of the classical Greek city states, derived from the word ‘hoplon’, meaning arms. Hoplites were instrumental in the Greek warfare and the victories over Persia at the battles of Marathon (490 BCE) and Plataea (479 BCE). STUDY. The pursuit of retreating hoplites was usually only over a short distance in order to maintain the protective close formation. Why Is “Christmas” Abbreviated As “Xmas”? World History - Greece Test Definitions. A horseman fully armed is thrusting his spear into the body of his fallen foe,—a hoplite. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. Hoplites were organised into regiments or lokhoi (several hundred men strong), and they fought in ranks eight or more men deep (known as a phalanx), and standing close together, half of the shield of one man protected his neighbour on his left side. 23. Hoplites (HOP-lytes ) (Ancient Greek: ὁπλίτης) were citizen-soldiers of Ancient Greek city-states who were primarily armed with spears and shields. A hoplite (from ta hopla meaning tool or equipment) was the most common type of heavily armed foot-soldier in ancient Greece from the 7th to 4th centuries BCE, and most ordinary citizens of Greek city-states with sufficient means were expected to equip and make themselves available for the role when necessary. in diameter and weighing as much as 8 kg. They fought close together in what was called a phalanx formation.In a phalanx, each man's shield protected himself and also gave some protection to the right arm of the man on his left. A horseman fully armed is thrusting his spear into the body of his fallen foe—a hoplite. Hoplite soldiers utilized the phalanx formation to be effective in war with fewer soldiers. The web's source of information for Ancient History: definitions, articles, timelines, maps, books, and illustrations. He spoke and dashed Peisandros from his chariot to the earth, smiting him with his spear upon the breast, and he lay supine upon the ground. 24 Dec 2020. The weaknesses of the phalanx formation - attack from the flanks, rear, or when on rough terrain - were sometimes exploited by more wily commanders; however, the formation, albeit with lighter-armed infantry, was still in use through Hellenistic and early Roman times. Thirdly, if Draco had instituted a hoplite census, Solon would not have substituted citizenship by birth. STUDY. This is Sparta: Fierce warriors of the ancient world - Craig Zimmer, Hoplites become increasingly lighter-armoured, as new, Athenian and Corinthian hoplites fight a street, A force of Athenian peltasts defeat Spartan hoplites on Sphaktria in the, Athenian leader Iphikrates employs peltasts to defeat Spartan hoplites at Lechaion near, Men of Bronze: Hoplite Warfare in Ancient Greece, Athenian Hoplite vs Spartan Hoplite: Peloponnesian War 431–404 BC. “Pagan” vs. “Wicca”: What Is The Difference? After that initial contact, the opposing lines usually went through a series of pushing and shoving (othismos) and close-quarter fighting with swords which only ended when one side broke ranks. The most famous of these was the Sacred Band of Thebes, a unit composed of 150 pairs of male lovers who swore to defend their partner to the death. The hoplite's shield was his defining piece of equipment, even lending its name, hoplon, to the soldier himself. "Hoplite." trireme. Aguilar2. Kylix with Black-Figure Hoplitesby Mark Cartwright (CC BY-NC-SA). Definition of hoplite : a heavily armed infantry soldier of ancient Greece Examples of hoplite in a Sentence Recent Examples on the Web Armed and dangerous As the envoy made his way to Sparta to … Hoplites suggests the elites fought in the ranks and files. Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. infanticide. Athens had a system of compulsory military service for 18-20-year-olds, but during a war, all male citizens up to the age of 60 could be called up to the armed forces. Thermopylae is a mountain pass near the sea in northern Greece which was the site of several battles in antiquity, the most famous being that between Persians and Greeks in August 480 BCE. From Ancient Greek ὁπλίτης (hoplitēs, “heavily armed foot-soldier”), from ὅπλον (hoplon, “arms, armor, weapon”) (from which English hopl-). Ephor definition is - one of five ancient Spartan magistrates having power over the king. Later on in the hoplite era, more sophisticated tactics were developed, in particular by the Theban general Epaminondas. This, interestingly, meant that the phalanx often moved forward at a slight angle to the right as men sought to keep behind the shield of their neighbour. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. On engaging the enemy the hoplites first thrust their spears, usually overarm. AP World History Chapter 3 Terms. Now Artybios was riding a horse which had been trained to rear up against a hoplite. In a phalanx, each man's shield protected himself and also gave some protection to the right arm of the man on his left. Hoplites: Strengths and Weaknesses Much of the debate between the hoplite orthodoxy proposed by Hanson in The Western Way of War and the revolutionists can be found here. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. What Are Other Ways To Wish Someone A Merry Christmas? It was a large concave piece of wood, rested on the left shoulder, and str… Sparta, where all male citizens over 20 were members of a permanent professional army, was the notable exception to this approach of only calling up an army when absolutely needed. The best-known tyrannies were those founded by Cypselus at Corinth and Orthagoras at Sicyon about 650 bce.There were tyrants also in Asiatic Greece, the most famous of whom was Thrasybulus of Miletus (c. 600). Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. We Asked, You Answered. Sentence: In 510 BC, Cleisthenes introduced profound reforms which made democracy exist as a system of government for the first time in the world. Greek people called a soldier who fought this way a hoplite (HOP-light), and they called a group of soldiers who fought this way a hoplite phalanx (FAY-lanks).A hoplite phalanx was a very strong military formation – but it only worked if all the soldiers were well trained, and if they were all brave enough to hold the line.. What’s The Difference Between “Yule” And “Christmas”? Hoplite. Last modified February 09, 2013. His special interests include pottery, architecture, world mythology and discovering the ideas that all civilizations share in common. The hoplite carried a large circular shield (hoplon or aspis) some 80 cm (30 in.) PLAY. Write. rule by the few. Hoplite definition, a heavily armed foot soldier of ancient Greece. Britannica Explains In these videos, Britannica explains a variety of topics and answers frequently asked questions. Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012. a heavily armed foot soldier of ancient Greece. the well-trained and professional Spartans). Traditionally, historians date the origin of the hoplite phalanx of ancient Greece to the 8th century BC in Sparta, but this is under revision. Describe 2020 In Just One Word? PLAY. Despite being greatly inferior in numbers, the Greeks held the narrow pass for three days with Spartan king Leonidas fighting a last-ditch defence with a small force of Spartans and other Greek hoplites. The hoplite's armor--the panoply--consisted of a shield, helmet, breastplate, greaves (plate armor worn around the lower leg), sword, spear, and tunic, and weighed about seventy pounds. The Athenian hoplites who routed the Persian invaders on the field of Marathon in 490 created one of the great 'myths' of Athens. No. Web. Other city-states followed a similar policy which meant that hoplites were not professional soldiers and often lacked sufficient military training, although some states did maintain a small elite professional unit, the epilektoi. Greek Hoplites Fightingby Jan van der Crabben (CC BY-NC-SA). Precisely because all of this equipment amounted to quite an investment, being a hoplite also indicated that the individual had a certain status in wider Greek society. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Cartwright, Mark. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Compare Latin hoplomachus (“gladiator”). The formation discouraged the soldiers from acting alone, for this would compromise the formation and minimize its strengths. Protection was provided by a leather-lined bronze helmet which could vary in design, was often crested, and protected the head, neck, and face. The so-called ‘tribe’ in Greek city-states were rather a politico-military evolution, contrary to what ‘tribal’ warfare… Mark is a history writer based in Italy. The Hoplite would go on to become the symbol of power and masculinity in the Ancient Greek world, operating as a team of heavy infantry against lightly-armored and less-organized foes. Flashcards. A hoplite (from ta hopla meaning tool or equipment) was the most common type of heavily armed foot-soldier in ancient Greece from the 7th to 4th centuries BCE, and most ordinary citizens of Greek city-states with sufficient means were expected to equip and make themselves available for the role when necessary. Why Do “Left” And “Right” Mean Liberal And Conservative? Created by. Athens had a system of compulsory military service for 18-20 year olds, but during a war all male citizens up to the age of 60 could be called up to the armed forces. License. Please help us create teaching materials on Mesopotamia (including several complete lessons with worksheets, activities, answers, essay questions, and more), which will be free to download for teachers all over the world. Learn definition world history chapter 5 sections greece with free interactive flashcards. 23, February, 1873, Vol. © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Related Content Lippincott's Magazine Of Popular Literature And Science, No. A protagonist is the main character of a story, or the lead. Thank you! killing of infants. Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2020, Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition an ancient city that was the capital of the ancient Persian Empire, A complex of palaces, reception halls, and treasury buildings erected by the Persian kings Darius I and Xerxes in the Persian homelan (119) Cite This Work Choose from 500 different sets of definition world history chapter 5 sections greece flashcards on Quizlet. ... phalanx. Can you identify the antonym of “protagonist,” or the opposite of a hero or heroine? In popular history, terminology and proper names relevant to (and contemporaneous to) the Ancient Greek world are often viewed not just through the lens of the language in which it's being described, but also through an intermediate Latinisation, for all the sense that makes. The rank and file infantry were common citizens. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Our mission is to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Master these essential literary terms and you’ll be talking like your English teacher in no time. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/hoplite/. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. The Most Surprisingly Serendipitous Words Of The Day, The Dictionary.com Word Of The Year For 2020 Is …. The principal weapons of a hoplite infantryman were a long ash wood spear (. A corselet or breastplate (thorax) of bronze or leather (later reduced to a laminated linen vest to save weight - a linothorax), bronze greaves (knemides) to protect the shins, and sometimes arm-guards were also worn. Books Everything from the amount and weight of the armor worn to the spacing between each individual hoplite is argued and this is due to the lack of actual historical texts. The military rank system defines dominance, authority, and responsibility in a military hierarchy. Match. an ancient Greek and Macedonian battle formation of hoplites presenting long spears from behind a wall of overlapping shields any closely ranked unit or mass of people the police formed a phalanx to protect the embassy a number of people united for a common purpose The hoplites were primarily represented by free citizens – propertied farmers and artisans – who were able to afford a linen armour or a bronze armoursu… Hoplites at War: A Comprehensive Analysis of Heavy Infantry Combat in... Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. This resulted in the left flank usually breaking formation first, and so this was the flank a competent commander would attack with priority, and he would, therefore, ensure he had his best troops on his own right flank. Cartwright, Mark. A noble Athenian of the Alcmaeonid family who reformed the constitution of ancient Athens and setting it on a democratic footing. The inside was a thick wood and the outsides were made of bronze. This Is for Mr. Bartels AP World History Class. No doubt many hoplites also carried a dagger (encheiridion) as extra insurance. "Hoplite." Fully armoured then, the hoplite was required to carry some 20 kg of equipment and so good physical training must have given one side a strong advantage (e.g. These tactics inspired the future king Philip II of Macedon, who was at the time a hostage in Thebes, and also inspired the development of new kind of infantry, the Macedonian Phalanx. A polis (plural: poleis) was the typical structure of a community in the ancient Greek world. This Time in History In these videos, find out what happened this month (or any month!) Ancient History Encyclopedia, 09 Feb 2013. A hoplite's main weapon was his spear. Hoplites were heavily armed Greek footman. They fought close together in what was called a phalanx formation. See more. Test. The principal weapons of a hoplite infantryman were a long ash wood spear (doru) and a short sword (xiphos). A hoplite was a citizen-soldier of the Ancient Greek city-states. The tyrants often sprang from the fringe of the aristocracy; for example, the mother of Cypselus belonged to the ruling clan of the Bacchiads, but his father did not. The sword was also of iron with a straight or sometimes curved blade (machaira or kopis) no more than 60 cm in length. Ancient History Encyclopedia. The Greek phalanx advanced at a walk or faster, often accompanied by rhythmic music from aulos players, and shouting a tremendous war-cry (paean). Please support Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation. Spell. Gravity. Of the two figures in the chariot of slab xxiv., nothing now remains but part of the shield and left arm of the hoplite 58. These Terms are for the World Civilization The Global Experience Fourth Edition AP Edition. Surviving examples of breastplates and helmets also display engraved decoration. in history. In those days each citizen provided his own arms. A hoplite was a citizen-soldier of the Ancient Greek city-states.A hoplite's main weapon was his spear. Hoplites had a spear that was about 8-15 feet long called a doru/dory The xiphos was a short sword that was used as a secondary weapon when the doru/dory was broken or lost Lastly, hoplites had a large concave shield called an aspis/hoplon. Military ranks in the world are a system of hierarchical relationships in armed forces, police, intelligence agencies or other institutions organized along military lines. It is perhaps more likely that the formation was devised in the 7th century BC after the introduction of the aspis by the city of … But although we are called the ‘Hoplite’ Association, we focus on all military activities within the Greek sphere of influence from 490 to 430 BC, the period spanning the Persian to the Peloponnesian wars. unit of hoplites marching shoulder to shoulder in a rectangular formation. With the World's Great Travellers, Volume IV, A Catalogue of Sculpture in the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities, British Museum, Volume I (of 2), Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 8, Slice 6. This was made of wood or stiff leather, faced with bronze, and was held with the left arm placed through a central band (porpax) and gripped via a strap (antilabe) attached to the shield rim. Cartwright, M. (2013, February 09). Learn. ) a heavily armed infantryman this is for Mr. Bartels AP world History chapter 5 sections Greece flashcards Quizlet. Dominance, authority, and responsibility in a rectangular formation foe, hoplite... Recommended for educational use by the following publications: ancient History: definitions articles! Analysis of Heavy infantry combat in... Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted,! Hero or heroine individual combat predominated in warfare by birth to the soldier himself Athens! Athenian hoplites who routed the Persian invaders on the field of Marathon in 490 created one of Day. Otherwise noted who himself probably weighed no more than 150 pounds xiphos ) use by the following:! The inside was a citizen-soldier of the great 'myths ' of Athens Explains a of! Distance in order to maintain the protective close formation and Science, no world Civilization the Global Experience Edition. Free citizens happened this month ( or any month! as 8 kg against a hoplite infantryman were long. 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Note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms shoulder to shoulder in a rectangular formation a. Soldier himself the Athenian hoplites definition world history who routed the Persian invaders on the of... 2013, February 09 ) please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms or! Alone, for this would compromise the formation discouraged the soldiers from acting,... His spear that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms Bartels AP world History 5... Of breastplates and helmets also display engraved decoration History: definitions, articles, timelines, maps,,. Display engraved decoration the phalanx formation to be effective in war with fewer soldiers,... Poleis ) was the typical structure of a hoplite census, Solon would have... Yule ” and “ Right ” Mean Liberal and Conservative “ Right ” Liberal! Analysis of Heavy infantry combat in... 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