Encyclopedia of Adolescence. doi:10.1080/10888691.2017.1398650. 64. Positive youth development, life satisfaction and problem behavior among Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong: a replication. Reclaiming Child Youth. doi:10.1111/cdev.12739, 53. Am Psychol. Ettekal, A. V., & Mahoney, J. L. (2017). •  Testimonials   Recognition for positive behavior refers to others’ positive responses to desired behaviors of youth. Self-efficacy represents the ability to achieve one’s goals through one’s effort. doi:10.1007/s10566-019-09488-7, 3. 2004;591(1):98–124. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.84.2.191, 18. How do school-based prevention programs impact teachers? This strength-based approach regards developmental resources and adolescent potentials as protective factors, which is different from the traditional deficit perspective emphasizing developmental risks and negative predictors. In the past three decades, the Search Institute has surveyed at least 3 million Grade 4 to Grade 12 students in more than 2000 communities. Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics, http://psycnet.apa.org/record/2006-13341-000, https://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/inspire/en/, Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. The third C (connection) denotes an individual’s positive relationships with other people and organizations such as the exchanges between the individual and the social environment. In contrast to the sheer focus on psychosocial competence in the SEL framework, there are views focusing on the importance of “being” of young people leading to optimal development, such as character and spirituality (eg, life meaning). Although common themes can be identified in different PYD models, the models differ in their theoretical orientation and focus on the community, spirituality, character, thriving and “doing” versus “being”. Theoretically, Shek, Yu and Fu attempted to integrate the character strengths with PYD and Confucian virtues.66 To foster positive development of adolescents in Hong Kong, scholars from five local universities developed a multi-year PYD program entitled Project P.A.T.H.S.85 This project is a high quality and comprehensive program based on the 15 PYD constructs and adopted multiple evaluation approaches and validated measures to evaluate the effectiveness of this program. To operationalize character, Peterson and Seligman proposed a “Value in Action” (VIA) model with 24 character strengths categorized into six dimensions, including “wisdom and knowledge”, “courage”, “humanity”, “justice”, “temperance” and “transcendence”.57,58 Scientific research showed that character strengths were not only strong buffers against a variety of adolescent psychosocial problems such as internalizing and externalizing problems, depression and suicidality,59–61 but also positively associated with life satisfaction, well-being, happiness and academic achievements.62–64 According to Battistich, character emphasizes the commitment to contribute to one’s community.65 Finally, the character perspective focuses more on the “being” of adolescents which is strongly upheld in Asian cultures. Resilience refers to one’s ability to adapt to life changes and stressful events healthily and flexibly. doi:10.1177/1049731517745994, 94. Cham, Switzerland: Springer; 2015:161–186. Impact of the project P.A.T.H.S. Positive youth development does not ignore the presence of risk or problem behaviours, but rather intentionally focuses on fostering youth’s positive identity, capacity for self-control, increasing decision-making abilities, moral development, social connectedness and social, vocational and academic competence (Roth and Brooks-Gunn, 2003; Guerra and Bradshaw, 2008). Appl Res Qual Life. Early Educ Dev. mo@unimelb.edu.au J Adolesc. Tehranchi A, Neshat Doost HT, Amiri S, Power MJ. Soc Indic Res. From submission to first editorial decision. Washington, DC: YouthPower Learning; 2016. 2007;31(3):263–273. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications; 2007:3–30. 11. Character Strengths and Virtues: A Handbook and Classification. in Hong Kong: development, training, implementation, and evaluation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2017:635–657. 92. In conclusion, this paper reviews the theoretical roots of the PYD approach and several PYD models. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Findings consistently showed that higher levels of assets were closely linked with lower levels of multiple risk behaviors and higher levels of thriving regardless of the gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status and geographic residence of the youths.28 Besides the cross-sectional associations, the number of assets that students experienced in their earlier lives also exerted positive impacts on their future developments.29 To conclude, scholars have shown that “adolescents with more personal and social assets … have a greater chance of both current well-being and future success”.30, As Benson et al stated, asset-building has been a major PYD strategy adopted in organizing and planning youth programs by multiple national systems, such as the Y-USA, Y-Canada, Boys and Girls Clubs of America and the Salvation Army.28 There is empirical support for the effectiveness of the assets-building strategy. First, theoretical perspectives of bonding are delineated. 91. doi:10.1007/BF01252690. 28. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. project was implemented in mainland China, with the development of curriculum materials and implementation of evaluation studies. doi:10.1177/0002716203260102. 取最新资讯 : Latecomer Development in a “Greening” World, Sustainability and Development Conference 2018, COVID-19′s impacts on migrant workers from Bangladesh: In search of policy intervention, Supermarket procurement and farmgate prices in India, Can the Paris deal boost SDGs achievement? This, in turn, requires that development increase the life support system (nature). 32. 2000;55(1):170–183. Table 1 A comparison among PYD models and approaches. 42. doi:10.1007/s11205-011-9786-9, 97. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development; 1997. Am J Mens Health. The contribution of the developmental assets framework to positive youth development theory and practice. Norwell, MA: KluwerAcademic; 2003:47–64. 65. 2010;95(3):455–474. Adolescents who have mutually beneficial or positive interaction with their multi-level contexts would engage in the process of positive development. 14, No. Trentacosta CJ, Fine SE. Silbereisen RK, Lerner RM. Elias MJ, Zins JE, Weissberg RP, et al. In: Miller LJ, editor. “Positive values”: strong guiding principles which help youths make healthy life decisions, including “caring”, “equality and social justice”, “integrity”, “honesty”, “responsibility” and “restraint” (eg, sexually inactive or stay away from psychoactive substances). Lerner RM, Alberts AE, Anderson PM, Dowling EM. New Dir Youth Dev. Soc Indic Res. The fifth C (caring/compassion) refers to the capacity of sympathizing and empathizing for others. Academic competence is reflected by school grades, school attendance and test scores. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.34.10.844, 22. Psychol Rev. Cantor P, Osher D, Berg J, Steyer L, Rose T. Malleability, plasticity, and individuality: how children learn and develop in context. and the related PYD assessment tool constitute a modest effort to contribute to the scientific literature on PYD. Larson RW. Social‐emotional competence: an essential factor for promoting positive adjustment and reducing risk in school children. Shek DTL, Zhu X, Leung JTY, Lee TY, Wu FKY. 93. 2007;17(3):380–391. If you agree to our use of cookies and the contents of our Privacy Policy please click 'accept'. Seligman MEP. 19. 2018;1–31. Character strengths as protective factors against depression and suicidality among male and female employees. Volume 2019:10 Pages 131—141, Editor who approved publication: An assessment of climate mitigation co-benefits or side-effects on poverty and inequality, Energy and Climate Transformations: 3rd International Conference on Energy Research & Social Science, Download the ‘Understanding the Publishing Process’ PDF, joint commitment for action in inclusion and diversity in publishing, Check the status of your submitted manuscript in the. 2004;591(1):40–54. Only Open Access Journals Only SciELO Journals Only WoS Journals The Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities is an interdisciplinary forum for the publication of original research and clinical reports from a variety of fields serving persons with developmental and physical disabilities. Sci World J. An evaluation of the measurement properties of the five Cs model of positive youth development. A comparison of the different PYD models in terms of theoretical orientation, the role of community, spirituality, character/morality, thriving, “being” versus “doing” and origin is also presented. doi:10.4135/9781446213803.n1. From editorial acceptance to publication. These two research directions are exciting possibilities for researchers in the field of PYD. The fourth C (character) represents morality, integrity, internal value standards for right behaviors and respect for social and cultural regulations. Journal of Community Engagement & Higher Education, 9(1), 29–45. All rights reserved. January AM, Casey RJ, Paulson D. A meta-analysis of classroom-wide interventions to build social skills: do they work? Four assets are proposed, including “creative activities”, “youth programs”, “religious community” and “time at home”. “Responsible decision-making”: able to make good personal choices about how to behave and interact with others that are in line with moral standards, safety principles and social norms. It reviews and compares several theories of thinking, highlights the features of critical thinking and creative thinking, and delineates their interrelationships. 2007;2(3):149–156. doi:10.1177/0272431604272461, 34. First, longitudinal studies in the field are limited. doi:10.1037//0003-066X.55.1.5. Positive youth development, participation in community youth development programs, and community contributions of fifth-grade adolescents: findings from the first wave of the 4-H study of positive youth development. Approaches to positive youth development: a view of the issues. •  Privacy Policy   Although different measures of PYD have been used to evaluate the effectiveness of PYD programs,78,79 there are overlaps amongs different PYD approaches, such as the emphasis on psychosocial competence. 2012;104(4):1189–1204. 25. Schools, academic motivation, and stage-environment fit. From: Advances in Child Development and Behavior, 2011. doi:10.1177/0272431603260879. 2015;105(11):2283–2290. Worldwide application of prevention science in adolescent health. For example, Shek, Yu and Fu attempted to integrate the character perspective with PYD and relate it to Confucian values.66, Spirituality is seen as an important component of PYD according to Benson and Catalano.43,67,68 According to Lerner, Alberts, Anderson and Dowling, spirituality is defined as views of life which are related to the transcendence of oneself and “goes beyond provincialism or materialism to express the authentic concerns about others”.69(p60) Shek proposed that spirituality includes a search for meaning and purpose of life, a search for and reaction to limitation of life (eg, death) and a quest for sacredness or infinity.70 Spirituality is also “an inherent aspect of human nature that unfolds during adolescence as the individual searches for transcendence, meaning, and purpose in life”.71(p755) Some scholars argued that spirituality is an important contextual asset or resource that helps to promote the positive development of adolescents.72 Others regarded it as an important “human capacity” or construct of PYD.43 Spirituality contributes significantly to the character formation of youth as it is closely related to moral aspects of character development of adolescents. J Relig Health. Waterman AS. National Research Council. 2012;2012:1–12. “Relationship skills”: the competence to build and maintain healthy and constructive relationships with others. 2018;9:1–11. Park N. Character strength and positive youth development. They include: The Search Institute developed instruments to measure each of the 40 individual assets (ie, “Attitudes and Behaviors: Profiles of Student Life”, A&B) and the eight related categories (ie, “Developmental Assets Profile”, DAP). Vol 1. 2009;18(2):42–47. Client-Centered Therapy: Its Current Practice, Implications and Theory. 2010;4(2):74–78. This article responds to recent calls for a focus on successful development in young people and examination of its developmental precursors, in order to identify potentially modifiable targets for interventions. Open access peer-reviewed scientific and medical journals. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-386492-5.00008-7. Positive youth development. Journal of Early Adolescence, 25, 17 – 71. Emotional competence means the ability to recognize own and others’ emotions and respond to these emotions. 98. Life satisfaction, positive youth development, and problem behavior among Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong. During the process of thriving, the adolescent develops an integrated moral and civic identity that contributes to the society which involves a sense of transcendence of self and self-interests in the horizontal plane (contribution to the society) and vertical plane (connection to infinity and eternity).74 Therefore, thriving as a process firstly helps to foster the development of spirituality and then uses spirituality as the emotional fuel to lead youth to develop to ideal adulthood.74 Empirically, Lerner and colleagues found that spirituality influenced youth thriving through religiosity.69 Scientific research also showed that spirituality was a strong buffer against the development of adolescent mental health problems.75,76. Brown BB, Prinstein MJ, eds. The relationship between intellectual capital and employees' productivity: evidence from the Gulf Cooperation Council 2013;25(4):335–344. Am Psychol. 6, No. J Educ Psychol. 2018;9:1–17. Positive youth development. 1993;48(2):90–101. It publishes six issues a year and presents the latest scientific findings related to happiness, fulfillment, and flourishing. 16. In: Lerner RM, Steinberg L, editors. Positive youth development in the United States: Research findings on evaluations of positive youth development programs. Fostering prosocial norms means helping young people to develop healthy beliefs and expectations for action. Sieng, M., Cloutier, S., & Irimata, K. (2018). 20. Establishing and evaluating the key functions of an interactive systems framework using an assets-getting to outcomes intervention. 2010;19(1):1–29. International Journal of Adolescent Mental Health, 547-558. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. Jones, K. R. (2005). Cham, Switzerland: Springer; 2016:43–60. Lopez AG. Responsible decision-making includes “identifying problems”, “analyzing situations”, “solving problems”, “evaluating”, “reflecting” and “taking ethical responsibility”. Handbook of Adolescent Development Research and Its Impact on Global Policy. Bronfenbrenner U. Ecology of the family as a context for human development: research perspectives. In: Israelashvili M, Romano J, editors. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms. The opinions expressed in all articles published here are those of the specific author(s), and do not necessarily reflect the views of Dove Medical Press Ltd or any of its employees. Advancing Responsible Adolescent Development. Appl Dev Sci. Emerging themes in research on adolescent spiritual and religious development. Bronfenbrenner U. Contexts of child rearing: problems and prospects. “Positive identity”: a sense of control and purpose as well as recognition of own strengths and potentials, including “personal power”, “self-esteem”, “sense of purpose” and “positive view of personal future”. J Early Adolesc. New York, NY: Elsevier; 2011:197–230. 2011;108(7):2693–2698. Shek DTL, Ma CMS. Benson PL, Roehlkepartain EC. Mendez ET. Shek DTL, Zhu X. Self-reported risk and delinquent behavior and problem behavioral intention in Hong Kong adolescents: the role of moral competence and spirituality. doi:10.1111/cdev.12874, 2. Moffitt TE, Arseneault L, Belsky D, et al. J Youth Adolesc. Journal of Management Development - Volume 1 Issue 1 to Volume 39 Issue 9/10. Clear and positive identity denotes an integrated and coherent sense of self. doi:10.1100/2012/170345. School climate and social–emotional learning: predicting teacher stress, job satisfaction, and teaching efficacy. Tolan P, Ross K, Arkin N, Godine N, Clark E. Toward an integrated approach to positive development: implications for intervention. 45. Shek DTL. 2017;88(2):408–416. Applying developmental science to understand sport participation and positive youth development. Social competence, social support, and academic achievement in minority, low-income, urban elementary school children. M. positive Psychology pools information from a multitude of disciplines that range from Psychology to economics schools delegate mission! Last 12 months del Ejercicio y el Deporte, 6 ( 2 ) HR, kim SM Hong! To Volume 39 Issue 9/10 exist differences across the models under review social‐emotional competence: an essential factor promoting. And respond to these emotions CMS, shek DTL, Yu L, editors study involving a vulnerable in... Participants in a healthy way have mutually beneficial or positive interaction with their multi-level contexts would in! Use of cookies and the contents of our Terms and public health: the impact of enhancing students ’ and. 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